References

1 For a complete list of references relating to the executive summary, refer to the Endnotes below.

2 Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Adding value to new animal product supply chains, 2008 https://rirdc.infoservices.com.au/downloads/08-013.pdf at 11 January 2010, p. 7.

3 Powell, R, Were you raised in a barn?, 2008 http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2008/06/23/1214073129243.html at 20 November 2010, p.2

4 Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, What are the welfare issues relating to turkey production? 2010 http://kb.rspca.org.au/What-are-the-welfare-issues-relating-to-turkey-production_431.html at 20 November 2010.

5 Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF), Chapter 3 - Turkey Industry in Australia, 2010 http://www.daff.gov.au/animal-planthealth/ animal/livestock_movement_in_australia_and_emergency_disease_preparedness/structure_and_dynamic s_of_australias_commercial_poultry_and_ratite_industries/chapter_3_turkey_industry_in_australia at 18 January 2010.

6 DAFF, above n 5

7 Australian Chicken Meat Federation, personal communication, 2010.

8 Australian Poultry Code of Practice, CSRIO: Primary Industries Standing Committee. Model Code of Practice for the Welfare of Animals. Domestic Poultry, 4th Edition, CSRIO Publishing, Victoria, (2002), p. 30.

9 Personal communication, 2010

10 Viva, End factory farming - Turkey, 2009 http://www.factoryfarming.org.uk/turkeys.html at 10 January 2010.

11 Saif, Y, Diseases of Poultry, Blackwell publishing, Iowa (2003).

12 Davis, K, More than a meal. The turkey history myth, ritual, history and reality, Lantern Books, New York, (2001), P. 15.

13 Australian Poultry Code of Practice, above n 8, p.19.

14 United Poultry Concerns, Debeaking factsheet, http://www.upconline.org/merchandise/debeak_factsheet.html at 11 January 2010.

15 Viva, above n 10

16 Viva, from Research at the AFRC Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics Research, Edinburgh, above n 10

17 Voiceless, From Nest To Nugget. An Exposť of Australia's Chicken Factories, 2008 http://www.voiceless.org.au/images/stories/reports/from_nest_to_nugget_report_online_final.pdf at 18 January 2008, p. 11

18 Singer, P, Animal Liberation, Pimlico, London, (1995).

19 Prescott, N, Wathes, C, & Jarvis, J, 'Light, vision and the welfare of poultry', University Federation of Animal Welfare Vol 12, 2003, pp. 269- 288.

20 Sayre, L, 'The Hidden Link between Factory Farms and Human Illness', Mother Earth News, 2009, Pp. 76-83.

21 Viva, above n 10

22 Ingham Enterprises, personal communication, 2010.

23 Ingham Enterprises, personal communication, 2010.

24 Gregory, N, Grandin, T, Animal Welfare and Meat Production, Cromwell, London, (2007).

25 Kristensen, H, Wathes, C, 'Ammonia and poultry welfare: A review', World's Poultry Science Journal Vol 56, 2000, pp. 235-245.

26 Sayre, above n 20, p. 78

27 Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, above n 4

28 Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, above n 4

29 Sayre, above n 20, p. 78

30 Sayre, above n 20, p. 78

31 Sayre, above n 20, p. 78

32 Joint expert Advisory Committee on Antibiotic Resistance (JETACAR) 1999, cited in Voiceless, above n 17, p.12

33 Sayre, above n 20, p. 79

34 Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, above n 4

35 Farm Sanctuary Report, Unnatural Breeding Techniques and Results in Modern Turkey Production, 2007 http://www.adoptaturkey.org/ai_report_vF.pdf at 16 January 2010, p.3

36 Personal Communication, 2010.

37 Farm Sanctuary Report, above n 35, p. 3

38 McErlane, B, Poultry News. A Case Study, 2002, P. 10.

39 Animal Liberation SA (AL SA) The turkey industry - more factory farming, http://animalliberation.org.au/images/stories/farmanimals/fsturkey.pdf at 5 November 2010.

40 DAFF, above n 5

41 McErlane, above n 38, p.10.

42 McErlane, above n 38, p.10.

43 Farm Sanctuary Report, above n 35, p.1

44 Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, above n 4

45 Farm Sanctuary Report, above n 35, p.2

46 Hardiman, J, 'Broiler breeding by the year 2006. Proceedings of the XX World's Poultry Congress', New Delhi, Vol 1, 1996, pp. 461-467.

47 Mills, L, Mitchell, M. Mahon, M, 'Incidence of skeletal muscle damage in selected and unselected strains of turkey,' British Poultry Science Vol 39, 1998.

48 Romvari, R, Petrasi, Z, Suto, Z, Szabo, A, Andrassy, G, Garamvilgyi, R, Horn, P, 'Non invasive characterisation of the turkey heart performance and its relationship to skeletal muscle volume', Poultry Science Vol 83, 2004.

49 Mills, Mitchell & Mahon, above n 47

50 Romvari, Petrasi, Suto, Szabo, Andrassy, Garamvilgyi, Horn, above n 48

51 Merck Veterinary Manual 8th ed, Merck & Co Inc: Whitehouse Junction, NJ, USA, (1998)

52 Ibid

53 Buchwalder, T, Huber-Eicher, B, 'Effect of increased floor space on aggressive behaviour in male turkeys', Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 89, 2004, pp 207-214.

54 Ibid

55 Personal Communication, 2010.

56 Stop Animal Cruelty DVD, http://SupremeMasterTV.com at 1 November 2010.

57 Turkeys, 'Animals in Schools. Animal Welfare Guidelines', 2009 http://www.schools.nsw.edu.au/media/downloads/animalsinschools/species/partb_turk.pdf at 25 September 2010.

58 Gregory, N, Grandin, T, above no 24

59 Saif, Y, above n 11

60 MacKenzie, personal communication, 2010.

61 MacKenzie, above n 60

62 Farm Sanctuary Report, above n 35, p. 3

63 Farm Sanctuary Report, above n 35, p. 3

64 DAFF, above n 5

65 Powell, above n 2, p. 3.

66 Powell, above n 2, p. 3.

67 Farrell, D, Turkeys: Poultry Hub - Research and Development, 2009 http://www.poultryhub.org/index.phpTurkey#The_Turkey_Industry_in_Australia at 18 January 2010.

68 PETA, Undercover Investigations - turkeys http://www.goveg.com/ui_turkeys.asp at 14 April 2010.

69 Ibid

70 DAFF, above n 5

71 SDD - FAO, Farm Animal Genetic Resources, 1998 http://www.fao.org/sd/epdirect/EPre0042.htm at 20 April 2010.

72 Ecology Resources, Problem: Extinction of Plant and Animal Species http://www.webofcreation.org/Earth%20Problems/species.htm at 10 January 2011.

73 Ecology Resources, above n 72

74 Farm Sanctuary Report, above n 35, p.5

75 Farm Sanctuary Report, above n 35, p.5

76 DAFF, above n 5

77 DAFF, above n 5

78 DAFF, above n 5

79 AL SA, above n 39

80 Hocking P, Maxwell, M. Bernard, R, 'Welfare of food restricted male and female turkeys', British Poultry Science, Vol 40, 1999, pp. 19-29.

81 Gregory, Grandin, above n 24

82 Hocking, Maxwell, Bernard, above n 80

83 United Poultry Concerns, above n 14

84 Model Code of Practice For the Welfare of Animals, Land and Transport of Poultry, 2006 at 13 February 2010, p. 8.

85 Royal Society For The Prevention of Cruelty To Animals, above n 4

86 Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Turkeys: RSPCA approved farming scheme standards 2010

http://www.rspca.org.au/assets/files/ApprovedFarming/RSPCATurkeyStandardsSep2010.pdf at 20 November 2010, p. 25

87 Prescott, N, Berry, P, Haslam, S. Tinker, D, 'Catching and crating turkeys: effects on carcass damage, heart rate, and other welfare parameters', Journal of Applied Poultry Science Vol 9, 2000, pp. 424-432

88 Prescott, Berry, Haslam, Tinker, above n 87

89 Royal Society For the Prevention of Cruelty To Animals, above n 4

90 FAWC, Report on the Welfare of Farmed Animals at Slaughter or Killing. Part 2: White Meat Animals. Farm Animal Welfare Council, London, (2009).

91 Farm Sanctuary, Factory Farming Fact Sheet - Turkeys http://www.adoptaturkey.org/aat/issues/ at 14 April 2010.

92 Hatkoff, A, The Inner World of Farm Animals: Their Amazing Social, Emotional, and Intellectual Capacities. Stewart, USA, (2009).

93 Ibid

94 Stop Animal Cruelty DVD, above n 56

95 Davis, above n 12

96 Fritz cited in Davis, K, More than a meal. The turkey history myth, ritual, history and reality, Lantern Books, New York, (2001), p. 92.